Team of T Chavakis: Chung KJ et al. 2014. Mol Biol Cell 25:2948. (LINK).
Rapid beta2-integrin activation is indispensable for leukocyte adhesion and recruitment to sites of infection and is mediated by chemokine- or P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1-induced inside-out signaling. Here we uncovered a novel pathway for rapid activation of integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion, triggered by toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling. TLR2 or TLR5 ligation rapidly activated integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion to immobilized ICAM-1 and fibronectin. Consistently, in vivo administration of the TLR2-ligand Pam3CSK4 increased integrin-dependent slow rolling and adhesion to endothelium within minutes, as identified by intravital microscopy in the cremaster model. TLR2 and TLR5 ligation increased beta2-integrin affinity, as assessed by the detection of activation-dependent neoepitopes. TLR2- and TLR5-triggered integrin activation in leukocytes required enhanced Rap1 GTPase activity, which was mediated by Rac1 activation and NADPH oxidase-2-dependent reactive oxygen species production. This novel direct pathway linking initial pathogen recognition by TLRs to rapid beta2-integrin activation may critically regulate acute leukocyte infiltration to sites of pathogen invasion.